In Australia, the implementing legislation for the agreement, the United States Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 2004, was reluctantly passed by the Senate on August 13, 2004 with amendments. After some delay, the US government accepted the amended Australian legislation as compatible with the implementation of the agreement. [Citation needed] While the program is very effective at keeping many drug prices low, pharmaceutical companies in the U.S. and Australia are wary of how the system works, arguing that higher drug prices are needed to fund the cost of research and development. U.S. pharmaceutical companies claim that by taking advantage of cheap drugs, Australians are essentially stowaways for the cost of research conducted in the United States.  On the 15th. In July, both houses of the U.S. Congress strongly supported the free trade agreement. The deal was also backed by Democratic Party presidential candidate John Kerry. The USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and Biosecurity Australia will establish a permanent technical working group, including representation from trade agencies, to review the development of scientific measures that affect trade between the two countries at the earliest possible stage of each country`s regulatory process. · An innovative enforcement mechanism includes fines to enforce trade, labour and environmental obligations under the trade agreement. Democratic candidate Bernie Sanders, who opposed the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade deal, called it “a continuation of other disastrous trade deals such as NAFTA, CAFTA and normal ongoing trade relations with China.” He believes that free trade agreements have led to the loss of American jobs and low American wages.
Sanders said America needs to rebuild its manufacturing base by using U.S. factories for well-paying jobs for American workers, rather than outsourcing to China and elsewhere.    The agreement requires the legal enforcement of digital rights management systems, however, an Australian legislative committee issued a report stating that this part of the treaty has a “significant loophole”: while the agreement provides for permitted exceptions allowing the use of devices to circumvent copyright access, it also prohibits access to those used for such circumvention. Tools. The report calls it a “regrettable and inexcusable error”, a “flagrant error” and even a “mistake bordering on absurdity”. The committee expressed its firm belief that the government must find a solution to the error before implementing this part of the treaty.  The agricultural part of the agreement describes the system of eliminating most tariffs on agricultural products traded between the two countries. Export subsidies should also be eliminated if the product in question is exported to one of the two country Parties. A study published in the August 2008 issue of the American Journal of Agricultural Economics found that NAFTA increased U.S. agricultural exports to Mexico and Canada, even though most of the increase occurred a decade after its ratification. The study focused on the impact that progressive periods of “phased implementation” of regional trade agreements, including NAFTA, have on trade flows.
Most of the increase in Members` agricultural trade, which was only recently placed under the responsibility of the World Trade Organization, was due to very high trade barriers prior to NAFTA or other regional trade agreements.  It was expected that a Chapter 19 committee would consider whether the agency`s decision was supported by “substantial evidence.” This standard paid great attention to the national agency. Some of the most controversial trade disputes in recent years, such as the softwood dispute between the United States and Canada, have been negotiated before Chapter 19 panels. Since the first negotiations, agriculture has been a controversial issue within NAFTA, as has been the case with almost all free trade agreements signed under the WTO. Agriculture was the only step that was not negotiated trilaterally; Instead, three separate agreements were signed between each pair of parties. Canada and the United States The agreement included significant restrictions and tariff rate quotas for agricultural products (mainly sugar, dairy and poultry products), while the pact between Mexico and the United States allowed for more extensive liberalization during phase-out phases (this was the first North-South free trade agreement on agriculture to be signed). [Clarification required] · The agreement fully meets the working objectives set by the Congress in TPA. The work commitments are part of the central text of the trade agreement. It was not until early 2001, after the election of George W. Bush in the United States and with John Howard in power in Australia, that an Australian-American FTA finally took shape. In April 2001, President Bush signaled his interest in a free trade agreement with Australia if “everything is on the table.” As a result, in 2004, the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade commissioned a private consulting firm – the Centre for International Economics (CIE) – to model the economic impact of such an agreement.
Negotiations on the free trade agreement began in March 2003 and after six rounds of negotiations in Canberra, Hawaii and Washington, D.C., the text was finally approved in February 2004 and signed in May 2004 by Australian Trade Minister Mark Vaile and U.S. Trade Representative Robert Zoellick in Washington. Latham reacted unexpectedly by conditioning Labour`s support for the free trade agreement on a change meant to protect PBS.  This effectively turned the situation around on Howard: when the government dismissed the change as unnecessary, it opened up to allegations that it was not protecting Australian interests; In supporting the amendment, it tacitly admitted that the original terms of the agreement were inadequate. The bill was eventually amended and passed. The objective of the “Safeguards” section of the Agreement is to establish an agreed structure to protect against serious adverse effects on each country`s domestic industry during the transition period following the lifting of tariffs. Countries also agree to consider excluding imports from the other country where such imports do not constitute a serious cause of injury to the domestic industry from the application of WTO global safeguard measures. The U.S. Chamber of Commerce attributed to NAFTA the increase in U.S. trade in goods and services with Canada and Mexico from $337 billion in 1993 to $1.2 trillion in 2011, while the AFL-CIO blamed the agreement for sending 700,000 U.S. manufacturing jobs to Mexico during that time.  After the signing of the free trade agreement, there was initial concern that the U.S.
agricultural sector would lobby against the agreement, fearing that it would interfere with the government`s agricultural subsidy program. However, the agreement with delays in importing Australian agricultural products such as beef and sugar cane may have eased concerns in the US agricultural market (as many Australian producers became severely frustrated). .